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  Research Area


Apoptosis : Apoptosis, or programmed cell death, characterized by nuclear condensation, cell shrinkage, membrane blebbing, energy-dependent biochemical mechanisms, and DNA fragmentation, plays an important role in many physiological and diseased conditions. Apoptosis is considered a vital component of various processes including normal cell turnover, proper development and functioning of the immune system, hormone-dependent atrophy, embryonic development and chemical-induced cell death. Inappropriate apoptosis (either too little or too much) is a factor in many human conditions including neurodegenerative diseases, ischemic damage, autoimmune disorders and many types of cancer. The ability to modulate the life or death of a cell is recognized for its immense therapeutic potential.

Fig. Classical representation of Apoptosis

The products from the following companies cater to research involving all these mediators in terms of numerous assay kits, enzymes, inhibitors and antibodies.

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Cancer : Cancer is a condition where cells in a specific part of the body grow and reproduce uncontrollably. The cancerous cells can invade and destroy surrounding healthy tissue, including organs. Cancer sometimes begins in one part of the body before spreading to other areas. This process is known as metastasis. In the modern era, cancer would be one of the highest researched diseases due to its increased prevalence and awareness. Oncology related research is actively pursued by academics and pharmaceutical companies looking for a cure.

Moving along this research trend in cancer, we offer from the following companies, a strong and diverse solution of products to aid researchers to answer basic and advanced cellular biology questions and help accelerate this growing field. 

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Cell Signaling and Signal Transduction

Cell Signaling and signal transduction: Most cell surface receptors stimulate intracellular target enzymes, which may be either directly linked or indirectly coupled to receptors by G proteins. These intracellular enzymes serve as downstream signaling elements that propagate and amplify the signal initiated by ligand binding. In most cases, a chain of reactions transmits signals from the cell surface to a variety of intracellular targets—a process called intracellular signal transduction. The targets of such signaling pathways frequently include transcription factors that function to regulate gene expression. Intracellular signaling pathways thus connect the cell surface to the nucleus, leading to changes in gene expression in response to extracellular stimuli.

The molecular circuitry of signal transduction cascades have three fundamental elements starting with - 1. Cell surface receptors (typically integral membrane proteins with extra-cellular and intracellular domains) which receive information from the outside, followed by 2. Intra-cellular second messenger molecules (typically small molecules which can diffuse through the cell like cAMP, cGMP, Inositol Phosphate, Calcium, Nitric Oxide, Diacylglycerol and whose concentration can be regulated quickly) which sense the activation of the receptor and amplify the signal (most commonly by phosphorylation or activation of a protein kinase) ultimately culminating in recruitment of  3. Specific effector molecules (transcription factors) which trigger the desired cellular responses such as changes in enzyme activity, gene expression, or ion-channel opening/closing needed for cell survival. 

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Diabetes And Metabolic Disorders

Diabetes and Metabolic Disorders:Diabetes, often referred as diabetes mellitus, describes a group of metabolic diseases in which the person has high blood glucose (blood sugar), either because insulin production is inadequate, or because the body's cells do not respond properly to insulin, or both. Patients with high blood sugar will typically experience polyuria (frequent urination), they will become increasingly thirsty (polydipsia) and hungry (polyphagia).

Diabetes is one of the most challenging health problems in the 21st century and one of the most common non-communicable diseases globally. It is the 4th or 5th leading cause of death in most high-income countries, with ~366 million diabetics in 2011 and an estimated 552 million in 2030. About 11% of total adult healthcare expenditure in the US and 8-18% in the EU is diabetes related. Asia is emerging as the epicenter of the diabetes epidemic. India and China have the greatest numbers of people with diabetes, and by 2025, they could each have 20 million affected individuals.

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⦁ Epigenetics: The term epigenetics refers to heritable changes in gene expression (active versus inactive genes) that does not involve changes to the underlying DNA sequence; a change in phenotype without a change in genotype. Epigenetic change is a regular and natural occurrence but can also be influenced by several factors including age, the environment/lifestyle, and disease state. Epigenetic modifications can manifest as commonly as the manner in which cells terminally differentiate to end up as skin cells, liver cells, brain cells, etc. Or, epigenetic change can have more damaging effects that can result in diseases like cancer. At least three systems including DNA methylation, histone modification and non-coding RNA (ncRNA)-associated gene silencing are currently considered to initiate and sustain epigenetic change. New and ongoing research is continuously uncovering the role of epigenetics in a variety of human disorders and fatal diseases.

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Inflammation and Autoimmune Diseases

⦁ Inflammation and Autoimmune Diseases: : ⦁ Autoimmune diseases occur when the immune system mistakes its own tissues as foreign and mounts an inappropriate attack on the body. Overblown inflammation is a common thread in these chronic conditions. Examples include multiple sclerosis, type 1 diabetes, Crohn's disease, lupus, and rheumatoid arthritis. In the case of autoimmune diseases, overproduction of ⦁ cytokines and ⦁ chemokines leads to inflammation of a body tissue. For example, too many cytokines in the joints can lead to rheumatoid arthritis. This condition worsens when chemokines summon more and more destructive immune system components — cells such as ⦁ macrophages, ⦁ neutrophils, and T cells — to the joint, amplifying the inflammatory response. Multiple sclerosis, the most common nerve disease in young adults, is a chronic inflammatory disorder of the nervous system that is believed to be due to a misguided autoimmune attack on myelin, a protective coating on nerve cells. In multiple sclerosis, myelin is slowly eroded by the body's immune system, leading to problems with muscle coordination (because muscles require the action of nerves) and vision. As the disease progresses, for some reason inflammation decreases, but lasting damage has already been done to body tissues.

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Neuroscience:Neuroscience encompasses the study of the nervous system including the brain, the spinal cord, nerves, cellular receptors along with all small molecule neurotransmitters and various protein effectors. These elements govern the relay of information key to all physiological functions of the body ranging from basic organ function, hormonal regulation, and muscle coordination to more sophisticated features like cognition, memory and the plethora of emotions higher mammals are capable of. Neurological disorders are diseases of the brain, spine and the nerves that connect them. There are more than 600 diseases of the nervous system, such as brain tumors, epilepsy, Parkinson's disease and stroke as well as less familiar ones such as frontotemporal dementia. Naturally, research in this area can take diverse directions and thus ensues a concomitant need for a broad range of tools.

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Stem Cells

Stem Cell research: Stem cells have the remarkable potential to develop into many different cell types in the body during early life and growth. In addition, in many tissues they serve as a sort of internal repair system, dividing essentially without limit to replenish other cells as long as the person or animal is still alive. When a stem cell divides, each new cell has the potential either to remain a stem cell or become another type of cell with a more specialized function, such as a muscle cell, a red blood cell, or a brain cell.

Stem cells are distinguished from other cell types by two important characteristics. First, they are unspecialized cells capable of renewing themselves through cell division, sometimes after long periods of inactivity. Second, under certain physiologic or experimental conditions, they can be induced to become tissue- or organ-specific cells with special functions. In some organs, such as the gut and bone marrow, stem cells regularly divide to repair and replace worn out or damaged tissues. In other organs, however, such as the pancreas and the heart, stem cells only divide under special conditions.

Stem cells offer the possibility of a renewable source of replacement cells and tissues to treat diseases including Alzheimer's diseases, spinal cord injury, stroke, burns, heart disease, diabetes, osteoarthritis, and rheumatoid arthritis.

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